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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
Form 10-Q

(Mark One)
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended June 30, 2023
or
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from____________to____________

Commission File Number: 001-39658
ROOT, INC.
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware84-2717903
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)
80 E. Rich Street, Suite 500
Columbus, Ohio
43215
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)
(866) 980-9431
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
N/A
(Former name, former address and former fiscal year if changed since last report)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Class A common stock,
$0.0001 par value per share
ROOTThe Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ☒ No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ☒ No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer ☐
Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer ☐
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes ☐ No
As of July 27, 2023, the number of outstanding shares of the registrant’s Class A common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, was 9.5 million and the number of outstanding shares of the registrant’s Class B common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, was 5.0 million.



TABLE OF CONTENTS
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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q contains forward-looking statements about us and our industry that involve substantial risks and uncertainties. All statements other than statements of historical facts contained in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q are forward-looking statements. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements because they contain words such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “contemplate,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “should,” “target,” “will” or “would” or the negative of these words or other similar terms or expressions. These forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements concerning the following:
our ability to retain existing customers, acquire new customers and expand our customer reach;
our expectations regarding our future financial performance, including total revenue, gross profit/(loss), net income/(loss), direct contribution, adjusted EBITDA, net loss and loss adjustment expense, or LAE, ratio, net expense ratio, net combined ratio, gross loss ratio, marketing costs and costs of customer acquisition, gross LAE ratio, gross expense ratio, gross combined ratio, quota share levels, changes in unencumbered cash balances and expansion of our new and renewal premium base;
our ability to realize profits, acquire customers, retain customers, contract with additional partners to utilize the product, or achieve other benefits from our embedded insurance offering;
our ability to expand our distribution channels through additional partnership relationships, digital media and referrals;
our ability to drive a significant long-term competitive advantage through our partnership with Carvana and other embedded partnerships;
our ability to develop embedded products for our new embedded insurance partners;
the impact of supply chain disruptions, increasing inflation, a recession and/or disruptions to properly functioning financial and capital markets and interest rates on our business and financial condition;
our ability to reduce operating losses and extend our capital runway;
our goal to be licensed in all states in the United States and the timing of obtaining additional licenses and launching in new states;
the accuracy and efficiency of our telematics and behavioral data, and our ability to gather and leverage additional data;
our ability to materially improve retention rates and our ability to realize benefits from retaining customers;
our ability to underwrite risks accurately and charge profitable rates;
our ability to maintain our business model and improve our capital and marketing efficiency;
our ability to drive improved conversion and decrease the cost of customer acquisition;
our ability to maintain and enhance our brand and reputation;
our ability to effectively manage the growth of our business;
our ability to raise additional capital efficiently or at all;
our ability to improve our product offerings, introduce new products and expand into additional insurance lines;
our ability to cross sell our products and attain greater value from each customer;
our lack of operating history and ability to attain profitability;
our ability to compete effectively with existing competitors and new market entrants in our industry;



future performance of the markets in which we operate;
our ability to operate a “capital-efficient” business and obtain and maintain reinsurance contracts;
our ability to realize economies of scale;
our ability to attract, motivate and retain key personnel, or hire personnel, and to offer competitive compensation and benefits;
our ability to deliver a vertically integrated customer experience;
our ability to develop products that utilize our telematics to drive better customer satisfaction and retention;
our ability to protect our intellectual property and any costs associated therewith;
our ability to develop an autonomous claims experience;
our ability to take rate action early and react to changing environments;
our ability to meet risk-based capital requirements;
our ability to realize the benefits anticipated from our Texas county mutual fronting arrangement;
our ability to expand domestically;
our ability to stay in compliance with laws and regulations that currently apply or become applicable to our business;
the impact of litigation or other losses;
the effect of increasing interest rates on our available cash and our ability to maintain compliance with our credit agreement;
our ability to maintain proper and effective internal control over financial reporting and remediate existing deficiencies;
our ability to continue to meet the Nasdaq Stock Market listing standards; and
the growth rates of the markets in which we compete.
You should not rely on forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. The outcome of the events described in these forward-looking statements is subject to risks, uncertainties and other factors described under the heading “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. Moreover, we operate in a very competitive and rapidly changing environment. New risks and uncertainties emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for us to predict all risks and uncertainties that could have an impact on the forward-looking statements contained herein. The results, events and circumstances reflected in the forward-looking statements may not be achieved or occur, and actual results, events or circumstances could differ materially from those described in the forward-looking statements.
The forward-looking statements made in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q relate only to events as of the date on which the statements are made and we undertake no obligation to update them to reflect events or circumstances after the date of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q or to reflect new information or the occurrence of unanticipated events, except as required by law.
Unless the context otherwise indicates, references in this report to the terms “Root,” “the Company,” “we,” “our” and “us” refer to Root, Inc. and its subsidiaries.
We may announce material business and financial information to our investors using our investor relations website (ir.joinroot.com). We therefore encourage investors and others interested in Root to review the information that we make available on our website, in addition to following our filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, webcasts, press releases and conference calls.



Part I.  Financial Information
Item 1.  Financial Statements
ROOT, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS - UNAUDITED
As of
June 30,December 31,
20232022
(in millions, except par value)
Assets
Investments:
Fixed maturities available-for-sale, at fair value (amortized cost: $165.9 and $134.2 at June 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022, respectively)
$160.0 $128.4 
Short-term investments (amortized cost: $2.7 and $0.4 at June 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022, respectively)
2.7 0.4 
Other investments4.4 4.4 
Total investments 167.1 133.2 
Cash and cash equivalents628.0 762.1 
Restricted cash1.0 1.0 
Premiums receivable, net of allowance of $2.2 and $2.8 at June 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022, respectively
127.6 111.9 
Reinsurance recoverable and receivable, net of allowance of $0.2 at June 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022
130.2 148.8 
Prepaid reinsurance premiums73.7 74.2 
Other assets67.3 81.7 
Total assets$1,194.9 $1,312.9 
Liabilities, Redeemable Convertible Preferred Stock and Stockholders’ Equity
Liabilities:
Loss and loss adjustment expense reserves$246.5 $287.4 
Unearned premiums154.6 136.5 
Long-term debt and warrants297.4 295.4 
Reinsurance premiums payable90.4 119.8 
Accounts payable and accrued expenses37.8 39.7 
Other liabilities41.8 45.0 
Total liabilities868.5 923.8 
Commitments and Contingencies (Note 11)
Redeemable convertible preferred stock, $0.0001 par value, 100.0 shares authorized, 14.1 shares issued and outstanding at June 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022 (liquidation preference of $126.5)
112.0 112.0 
Stockholders’ equity:
Class A common stock, $0.0001 par value, 1,000.0 shares authorized, 9.4 and 9.2 shares issued and outstanding at June 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022
  
Class B common stock, $0.0001 par value, 269.0 shares authorized, 5.0 shares issued and outstanding at June 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022
  
Additional paid-in capital1,865.7 1,850.7 
Accumulated other comprehensive loss(5.9)(5.8)
Accumulated loss(1,645.4)(1,567.8)
Total stockholders’ equity214.4 277.1 
Total liabilities, redeemable convertible preferred stock and stockholders’ equity$1,194.9 $1,312.9 
See Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements - Unaudited
1


ROOT, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS AND COMPREHENSIVE LOSS - UNAUDITED
Three Months Ended June 30,Six Months Ended June 30,
2023202220232022
(in millions, except per share data)
Revenues:
Net premiums earned$63.9 $74.7 $123.9 $153.0 
Net investment income6.8 0.7 13.5 1.3 
Net realized (losses) gains on investments (0.1) 1.1 
Fee income3.8 4.4 7.0 9.3 
Other income 0.3 0.7 0.5 1.1 
Total revenues74.8 80.4 144.9 165.8 
Operating expenses:
Loss and loss adjustment expenses59.5 95.7 122.8 192.4 
Sales and marketing6.1 21.4 9.7 36.7 
Other insurance expense (benefit)2.6 (7.8)3.9 (6.8)
Technology and development11.1 17.9 21.3 31.8 
General and administrative20.7 39.5 42.2 70.0 
Total operating expenses100.0 166.7 199.9 324.1 
Operating loss(25.2)(86.3)(55.0)(158.3)
Interest expense(11.5)(9.2)(22.6)(14.7)
Loss before income tax expense(36.7)(95.5)(77.6)(173.0)
Income tax expense    
Net loss(36.7)(95.5)(77.6)(173.0)
Other comprehensive loss:
Changes in net unrealized losses on investments(1.2)(1.3)(0.1)(5.0)
Comprehensive loss$(37.9)$(96.8)$(77.7)$(178.0)
Loss per common share: basic and diluted (both Class A and B)$(2.55)$(6.77)$(5.43)$(12.36)
Weighted-average common shares outstanding: basic and diluted (both Class A and B)14.4 14.1 14.3 14.0 

See Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements - Unaudited

2


ROOT, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF REDEEMABLE CONVERTIBLE PREFERRED STOCK AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY - UNAUDITED
Redeemable Convertible Preferred StockClass A and Class B Common StockAdditional Paid-in CapitalAccumulated Other Comprehensive LossAccumulated LossTotal Stockholders' Equity
SharesAmountClass A SharesClass B SharesAmount
(in millions)
Balance—March 31, 202314.1 $112.0 9.2 5.0 $ $1,857.1 $(4.7)$(1,608.7)$243.7 
Net loss— — — — — — — (36.7)(36.7)
Other comprehensive loss— — — — — — (1.2)— (1.2)
Common stock—option exercises and restricted stock units vesting, net of shares withheld for employee taxes— — 0.2 — — — — — — 
Common stock—share-based compensation expense— — — — — 5.2 — — 5.2 
Warrant compensation expense— — — — — 3.9 — — 3.9 
Warrant issuance costs— — — — — (0.5)— — (0.5)
Balance—June 30, 202314.1 $112.0 9.4 5.0 $ $1,865.7 $(5.9)$(1,645.4)$214.4 
Balance—January 1, 202314.1 $112.0 9.2 5.0 $ $1,850.7 $(5.8)$(1,567.8)$277.1 
Net loss— — — — — — — (77.6)(77.6)
Other comprehensive loss— — — — — — (0.1)— (0.1)
Common stock—option exercises and restricted stock units vesting, net of shares withheld for employee taxes— — 0.2 — — — — — — 
Common stock—share-based compensation expense— — — — — 7.7 — — 7.7 
Warrant compensation expense— — — — — 8.3 — — 8.3 
Warrant issuance costs— — — — — (1.0)— — (1.0)
Balance—June 30, 202314.1 $112.0 9.4 5.0 $ $1,865.7 $(5.9)$(1,645.4)$214.4 

3


ROOT, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF REDEEMABLE CONVERTIBLE PREFERRED STOCK AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY - UNAUDITED
Redeemable Convertible Preferred StockClass A and Class B Common StockAdditional Paid-in CapitalAccumulated Other Comprehensive (Loss) IncomeAccumulated LossTotal Stockholders' Equity
SharesAmountClass A SharesClass B SharesAmount
(in millions)
Balance—March 31, 202214.1 $112.0 8.6 5.5 $ $1,818.5 $(3.3)$(1,347.6)$467.6 
Net loss— — — — — — — (95.5)(95.5)
Other comprehensive loss— — — — — — (1.3)— (1.3)
Conversion of Class B to Class A— — 0.3 (0.3)— — — — — 
Common stock—share-based compensation expense— — — — — 7.4 — — 7.4 
Warrant compensation expense— — — — — 3.5 — — 3.5 
Warrant issuance costs— — — — — (0.4)— — (0.4)
Balance—June 30, 202214.1 $112.0 8.9 5.2 $ $1,829.0 $(4.6)$(1,443.1)$381.3 
Balance—January 1, 202214.1 $112.0 7.9 6.1 $ $1,806.1 $0.4 $(1,270.1)$536.4 
Net loss— — — — — — — (173.0)(173.0)
Other comprehensive loss— — — — — — (5.0)— (5.0)
Conversion of Class B to Class A— — 0.9 (0.9)— — — — — 
Common stock—option exercises and restricted stock units vesting, net of shares withheld for employee taxes— — 0.1 — — 0.4 — — 0.4 
Reclassification of early-exercised stock options from liabilities— — — — — 0.1 — — 0.1 
Common stock—share-based compensation expense— — — — — 14.0 — — 14.0 
Warrant compensation expense— — — — — 8.8 — — 8.8 
Warrant issuance costs— — — — — (1.0)— — (1.0)
Term Loan warrants issued— — — — — 0.6 — — 0.6 
Balance—June 30, 202214.1 $112.0 8.9 5.2 $ $1,829.0 $(4.6)$(1,443.1)$381.3 

See Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements - Unaudited

4


ROOT, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS - UNAUDITED
Six Months Ended June 30,
20232022
(in millions)
Cash flows from operating activities:
Net loss$(77.6)$(173.0)
Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash used in operating activities:
Share-based compensation7.7 14.0 
Warrant compensation expense8.3 8.8 
Depreciation and amortization5.5 6.6 
Bad debt expense5.0 8.9 
Net realized gains on investments (1.1)
Changes in operating assets and liabilities:
Premiums receivable(20.7)7.0 
Reinsurance recoverable and receivable18.6 (3.1)
Prepaid reinsurance premiums0.5 9.0 
Other assets14.6 (3.8)
Losses and loss adjustment expenses reserves(40.9)(7.5)
Unearned premiums18.1 (18.2)
Reinsurance premiums payable(29.4)22.4 
Accounts payable and accrued expenses(0.8)14.3 
Other liabilities(3.2)10.8 
Net cash used in operating activities(94.3)(104.9)
Cash flows from investing activities:
Purchases of investments(48.9)(9.0)
Proceeds from maturities, call and pay downs of investments14.8 11.6 
Sales of investments0.2 2.2 
Capitalization of internally developed software(5.1)(5.3)
Purchases of fixed assets(0.2) 
Purchases of indefinite-lived intangible assets and transaction costs (1.3)
Net cash used in investing activities(39.2)(1.8)
Cash flows from financing activities:
Proceeds from exercise of stock options and restricted stock units, net of tax (withholding)/proceeds(0.6)0.3 
Proceeds from issuance of debt and related warrants, net of issuance costs 286.0 
Net cash (used in) provided by financing activities(0.6)286.3 
Net (decrease) increase in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash (134.1)179.6 
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at beginning of period763.1 707.0 
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at end of period$629.0 $886.6 

See Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements - Unaudited

5


ROOT, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS - UNAUDITED
1.NATURE OF BUSINESS
Root, Inc. is a holding company which, directly or indirectly, maintains 100% ownership of each of its subsidiaries, including, among others, Root Insurance Company, an Ohio-domiciled insurance company; Root Property & Casualty Insurance Company, which as of July 1, 2023 was redomiciled from Delaware to Ohio; and Root Reinsurance Company, Ltd., a Cayman Islands-domiciled reinsurance company, together with Root, Inc., “we,” “us” or “our.”
We were formed in 2015 and began writing personal auto insurance in July 2016. We are a technology company operating primarily a direct-to-consumer model with the majority of our personal insurance customers acquired through mobile applications and our embedded platform. We offer auto and renters insurance products underwritten by Root Insurance Company and Root Property & Casualty Insurance Company.
2.BASIS OF PRESENTATION AND SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Basis of Presentation—In our opinion, all adjustments necessary for a fair presentation of the condensed consolidated financial statements have been included. All such adjustments are of a normal and recurring nature. These condensed consolidated financial statements are unaudited and, accordingly, should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and related notes included in the Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022 filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, on February 22, 2023, or the 2022 10-K.
Basis of Consolidation—The unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Root, Inc. and its subsidiaries, all of which are wholly owned. These financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States, or GAAP. All intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated.
Use of Estimates—The preparation of the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements requires management to make certain estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Significant estimates reflected in our unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements include, but are not limited to, reserves for loss and loss adjustment expense, or LAE, allowance for expected credit losses on premium receivables and valuation allowances for income taxes.
Revision of Previously Issued Financial Statements—During the fourth quarter of 2022, we identified errors in our first, second and third quarter financial statements for 2022 and revised the quarterly presentation of certain sales and marketing and general and administrative expenses on our condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss related to the purported misappropriation of funds by a senior marketing employee. The errors did not impact periods prior to 2022.
In accordance with SEC Staff Accounting Bulletin, or SAB, No. 99, Materiality, and SAB No. 108, Considering the Effects of Prior Year Misstatements when Quantifying Misstatements in Current Year Financial Statements, we assessed the materiality of these errors on our financial statements and concluded the errors were not material to the unaudited interim financial statements for the three and six months ended June 30, 2022.

6


The following tables present the effect of the revision on the condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss for the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, condensed consolidated statement of redeemable convertible preferred stock and stockholders’ equity and condensed consolidated statement of cash flows as of and for the six months ended June 30, 2022.
Three Months Ended June 30, 2022 (unaudited)Six Months Ended June 30, 2022 (unaudited)
As reportedAdjustmentsAs CorrectedAs reportedAdjustmentsAs Corrected
(in millions, except per share amounts)
Condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss:
Sales and marketing$25.4 $(4.0)$21.4 $40.1 $(3.4)$36.7 
General and administrative29.9 9.6 39.5 59.9 10.1 70.0 
Total operating expenses161.1 5.6 166.7 317.4 6.7 324.1 
Operating loss(80.7)(5.6)(86.3)(151.6)(6.7)(158.3)
Loss before income tax expense(89.9)(5.6)(95.5)(166.3)(6.7)(173.0)
Net loss(89.9)(5.6)(95.5)(166.3)(6.7)(173.0)
Comprehensive loss$(91.2)$(5.6)$(96.8)$(171.3)$(6.7)$(178.0)
Weighted-average common shares outstanding: basic and diluted (both Class A and B)14.1 14.1 14.0 14.0 
Loss per common share: basic and diluted (both Class A and B)$(6.38)$(6.77)$(11.88)$(12.36)

As of June 30, 2022 (unaudited)
As reportedAdjustmentsAs Corrected
(in millions)
Condensed consolidated statement of redeemable convertible preferred stock and stockholders equity:
Accumulated loss$(1,436.4)$(6.7)$(1,443.1)
Total stockholders’ equity$388.0 $(6.7)$381.3 

Six Months Ended June 30, 2022 (unaudited)
As reportedAdjustmentsAs Corrected
(in millions)
Condensed consolidated statement of cash flows:
Net loss$(166.3)$(6.7)$(173.0)
Other assets(10.5)6.7 (3.8)
Net cash used in operating activities$(104.9)$— $(104.9)

7


Reverse Stock Split— In August 2022, an authorized subcommittee of our board of directors approved a reverse stock split of our Class A and Class B common stock at a ratio of 1-for-18. On August 12, 2022, we filed a Certificate of Amendment to our Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation to effect a 1-for-18 reverse stock split of our Class A and Class B common stock. As a result of the reverse stock split, every 18 shares of our issued or outstanding pre-reverse split common stock of each class were combined into one share of common stock of such class. No fractional shares were issued upon the reverse stock split. On August 15, 2022, our Class A common stock began trading on a split-adjusted basis on the Nasdaq Stock Market. Accordingly, all historical per share data, number of shares outstanding and other common stock equivalents for the periods presented in the accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements and notes thereto have been adjusted retroactively, where applicable, to reflect the reverse stock split.
Cash, Cash Equivalents and Restricted CashThe following table provides a reconciliation of cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash reported within the condensed consolidated balance sheets that sum to the total of the same such amount in the condensed consolidated statements of cash flows:
As of
June 30,December 31,
20232022
(dollars in millions)
Cash and cash equivalents$628.0 $762.1 
Restricted cash1.0 1.0 
Total cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash shown in the condensed consolidated statements of cash flows$629.0 $763.1 


8


3.INVESTMENTS
The amortized cost and fair value of short-term investments and available-for-sale fixed maturity securities at June 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022 are as follows:

June 30, 2023
Amortized CostAllowance for Expected Credit LossesGross Unrealized GainsGross Unrealized LossesFair Value
(dollars in millions)
Fixed maturities:
U.S. Treasury securities and agencies$15.2 $ $ $(0.3)$14.9 
Municipal securities25.6   (1.2)24.4 
Corporate debt securities70.0   (2.7)67.3 
Residential mortgage-backed securities10.6   (0.4)10.2 
Commercial mortgage backed securities29.2   (1.2)28.0 
Other debt obligations15.3   (0.1)15.2 
Total fixed maturities165.9   (5.9)160.0 
Short-term investments2.7    2.7 
Total$168.6 $ $ $(5.9)$162.7 
December 31, 2022
Amortized CostAllowance for Expected Credit LossesGross Unrealized GainsGross Unrealized LossesFair Value
(dollars in millions)
Fixed maturities:
U.S. Treasury securities and agencies$11.3 $ $ $(0.3)$11.0 
Municipal securities21.4   (1.2)20.2 
Corporate debt securities60.5   (2.7)57.8 
Residential mortgage-backed securities5.5   (0.3)5.2 
Commercial mortgage backed securities24.4   (1.2)23.2 
Other debt obligations11.1  0.1 (0.2)11.0 
Total fixed maturities134.2 0.1(5.9)128.4
Short-term investments0.4   0.4
Total$134.6 $ $0.1 $(5.9)$128.8 
Management reviewed the available-for-sale securities at each balance sheet date to consider whether it was necessary to recognize a credit loss as of June 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022. We do not intend to sell the investments and it is not more likely than not that we will be required to sell the security before recovery. Management concluded that the available-for-sale securities’ unrealized losses were due to non-credit related factors and, therefore, there was no allowance for credit loss as of June 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022.

9


The following tables reflect the gross unrealized losses and fair value of short-term investments and available-for-sale fixed maturity securities, aggregated by investment category and length of time that individual securities have been in a continuous unrealized loss position at June 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022:
June 30, 2023
Less than 12 Months12 Months or MoreTotal
Fair ValueUnrealized
Loss
Fair ValueUnrealized
Loss
Fair ValueUnrealized
Loss
(dollars in millions)
Fixed maturities:
U.S. Treasury securities and agencies$9.1 $(0.1)$5.3 $(0.2)$14.4 $(0.3)
Municipal securities7.9 (0.1)14.9 (1.1)22.8 (1.2)
Corporate debt securities28.3 (0.6)37.9 (2.1)66.2 (2.7)
Residential mortgage-backed securities6.7 (0.1)2.0 (0.3)8.7 (0.4)
Commercial mortgage-backed securities13.4 (0.3)14.5 (0.9)27.9 (1.2)
Other debt obligations10.8 (0.1)1.5  12.3 (0.1)
Total fixed maturities76.2 (1.3)76.1 (4.6)152.3 (5.9)
Short-term investments1.0    1.0  
Total$77.2 $(1.3)$76.1 $(4.6)$153.3 $(5.9)
December 31, 2022
Less than 12 Months12 Months or MoreTotal
Fair ValueUnrealized
Loss
Fair ValueUnrealized
Loss
Fair ValueUnrealized
Loss
(dollars in millions)
Fixed maturities:
U.S. Treasury securities and agencies$6.9 $(0.1)$4.1 $(0.2)$11.0 $(0.3)
Municipal securities11.5 (0.5)8.2 (0.7)19.7 (1.2)
Corporate debt securities45.3 (1.6)11.5 (1.1)56.8 (2.7)
Residential mortgage-backed securities2.2  1.9 (0.3)4.1 (0.3)
Commercial mortgage-backed securities18.3 (0.8)4.6 (0.4)22.9 (1.2)
Other debt obligations6.8 (0.2)  6.8 (0.2)
Total fixed maturities91.0 (3.2)30.3 (2.7)121.3 (5.9)
Short-term investments0.1    0.1  
Total$91.1 $(3.2)$30.3 $(2.7)$121.4 $(5.9)

Other Investments
As of June 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022, other investments related to our private equity investments were $4.4 million. There were no realized gains or losses for the three and six months ended June 30, 2023. We recognized zero and $1.2 million of realized gains for the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, respectively. We recorded the gain on sale of our private equity investments within net realized (losses) gains on investments in our condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss. There were no unrealized gains and losses or impairment losses recognized on private equity investments for the three and six months ended June 30, 2023 and 2022.

10


The following table reflects the gross and net realized gains and losses on short-term investments, available-for-sale fixed maturities and other investments that have been included in the condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss for the three and six months ended June 30, 2023 and 2022:
Three Months Ended June 30,Six Months Ended June 30,
2023202220232022
(dollars in millions)
Realized gains on investments$ $ $ $1.2 
Realized losses on investments (0.1) (0.1)
Net realized (losses) gains on investments$ $(0.1)$ $1.1 
The following table sets forth the amortized cost and fair value of short-term investments and available-for-sale fixed maturity securities by contractual maturity at June 30, 2023:
June 30, 2023
Amortized CostFair Value
(dollars in millions)
Due in one year or less$34.1 $33.5 
Due after one year through five years100.0 96.2 
Due five years through 10 years19.1 18.4 
Due after 10 years15.4 14.6 
Total$168.6 $162.7 
The following table sets forth the components of net investment income for the three and six months ended June 30, 2023 and 2022:

Three Months Ended June 30,Six Months Ended June 30,
2023202220232022
(dollars in millions)
Interest on bonds$1.0 $0.5 $1.9 $1.1 
Interest on deposits and cash equivalents6.0 0.4 11.9 0.6 
Total7.0 0.9 13.8 1.7 
Investment expense(0.2)(0.2)(0.3)(0.4)
Net investment income$6.8 $0.7 $13.5 $1.3 


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The following tables summarize the credit ratings of short-term investments and available-for-sale fixed maturity securities at June 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022:

June 30, 2023
Amortized CostFair Value% of Total
Fair Value
(dollars in millions)
S&P Global rating or equivalent
AAA$81.8 $79.1 48.6 %
AA+, AA, AA-, A-126.7 25.8 15.9 
A+, A, A-45.0 43.0 26.4 
BBB+, BBB, BBB-15.1 14.8 9.1 
Total$168.6 $162.7 100.0 %


December 31, 2022
Amortized CostFair Value % of Total
Fair Value
(dollars in millions)
S&P Global rating or equivalent
AAA$62.5 $59.9 46.5 %
AA+, AA, AA-, A-119.9 19.114.8 
A+, A, A-38.4 36.528.3 
BBB+, BBB, BBB-13.8 13.310.4 
Total$134.6 $128.8 100.0 %

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4.FAIR VALUE OF FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS
The following tables provide information about our financial assets measured and reported at fair value as of June 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022:

June 30, 2023
Level 1Level 2Level 3Total
Fair Value
(dollars in millions)
Assets
Fixed maturities:
U.S. Treasury securities and agencies$13.1 $1.8 $ $14.9 
Municipal securities 24.4  24.4 
Corporate debt securities 67.3  67.3 
Residential mortgage-backed securities 10.2  10.2 
Commercial mortgage-backed securities 28.0  28.0 
Other debt obligations 15.2  15.2 
Total fixed maturities13.1 146.9  160.0 
Short-term investments2.4 0.3  2.7 
Cash equivalents404.3   404.3 
Total assets at fair value $419.8 $147.2 $ $567.0 
December 31, 2022
Level 1Level 2Level 3Total
Fair Value
(dollars in millions)
Assets
Fixed maturities:
U.S. Treasury securities and agencies$9.2 $1.8 $ $11.0 
Municipal securities 20.2  20.2 
Corporate debt securities 57.8  57.8 
Residential mortgage-backed securities 5.2  5.2 
Commercial mortgage-backed securities 23.2  23.2 
Other debt obligations 11.0  11.0 
Total fixed maturities9.2 119.2  128.4 
Short-term investments 0.4  0.4 
Cash equivalents487.3   487.3